作者：北京新东方国内考试部 四六级考研[微博]写作教师 金凌虹
Compared to “ Using Literary Texts in Language Teaching” , this article explain the reasons of using literary tests in a language classroom and the criteria of selecting tests in a more detailed way and the important roles that literature plays in teaching the four basic English skills and the benefits of different genres of literature to language teaching. According to Collie and Slater, the author thinks that there are four main reasons for teachers to teach literature in a English classroom, valuable authentic material, cultural enrichment, language enrichment and personal involvement. Except these, some characters of literature texts also contribute to the use of literature as a powerful resource in the classroom context, such as universality (the themes literature deals with are common to all cultures), non-triviality (literature does not trivialize or talk down texts or experience), personal relevance (readers can relate the texts to their own lives), variety( literature includes varieties of subjects), interest(literature’s topics or themes are usually interesting), economy and suggestive power(maximum output can be derived from minimum input in literature), ambiguity(literature speaks subtly different meanings to different people), sociolinguistic richness( language changes from one social group to another in literature). Just as what said in “Using Literary Texts in Language Teaching”, the author agreed to choose the texts based on the needs, motivation, interest, cultural background and language level of the students. The most interesting part is the description of the relationship between literature and reading skills, writing skills, speaking and listening skills. The author put an emphasis on writing skills and explain the literature’s potential contribution to three models of writing (controlled writing, guided writing and reproducing writing), two subject writing (writing “on or about” literature, writing “out of” literature) and some forms of writing “out of“ literature( adding to the work, changing the work, drama-inspired writing and a letter addressed to another character). As for the speaking and listening part, the author provided some activities, such as oral reading, literature-based dramatic activities( dramatization, role-playing, improvisation) and group activities( general class discussion, small group work, pane discussion, debates), which can be helpful for students’ speaking and listening. Finally, the author discussed the benefits of different genres ( poetry, short fiction, drama, novel) of literature to language teaching, which can give teachers more suitable choices to choose from. Although teachers may face many difficulties in teaching literature, but literature do provide students with an incomparable rich source of authentic material over a wide range of registers, so as an English teacher, we should try our best to use literature in our English classrooms.
OnDoing Small Things
On Doing Small Things
乐白家手机客户端， 子：Dad, I'm a bit worried about disposing of nuclear waste(处理核废料)
父：If you can empty the dustbin(垃圾筒) here, you can do anything
我在北京新东方的面授班(四级写作点睛班)上曾讲解图画作文，分析，在2012年6月16日，六级考察了图画作文，而当时，图画作文出现在六级也是第一次；目前，四级已经考察了图表作文，考研考的题，六级都没有考过；因此这么推论分析，也可能这次四级轮到图画作文了 —— 考研考过，六级考过，就剩你四级了！
图画的内容和构图不难：父亲和男孩子的对话，孩子说“ Dad，I am a bitworried about disposing of nuclear weapon. (爸爸，我有点担心清除核武器这个问题)”，父亲则回答“ If you can empty the dustbin, you can do anything. (如果你能把垃圾桶倒掉，你就能坐好任何事情)” ，说话间，手指着垃圾桶。
We can see from the illustration there is a father talking to his son. Having heard his son’s words “Dad, I am a bit worried about disposing of nuclear weapons”， the father replies, “If you can empty the dustbin here, you can do anything”， pointing the garbage can beside him。
这幅图画和2012年6月的六级漫画作文非常相似，当时的图中，也是两人对话，女儿和父亲。父亲问女儿：“ Hi, sweetie, how was your school today ? (嘿，小甜心，你在今天在学校过得怎么样？)” 女儿非常冷漠的回答：“Dad,youcan read all about it on my blogs. (爹哋，你自己可以在我的博客上读到所有内容)”，然后呢，女儿拔腿出门，留下父亲一脸惊愕。
Funny and common as the conversation sounds, it reflects that the father intends to advise his son to do small things before undertaking the big. Unquestionably, doing small things is the first step of success and will lay root for doing something big. By doing something small, we are enabled to accumulate experience, master skills and train ourselves to be more patient. In other word, we can be well prepared for further challenges in the course of fulfilling small things. By contrast, those who set out to do something big will be constantly haunted by disappointment, frustrations or even failures. As when opportunity “something big” appears, they can hardly seize them because of the lack of experience and confidence stems from doing small things. Taking the picture presented above as a case in point, how can the little boy succeed in disposing of nuclear weapons if he even doesn’t know how to empty the dustbin?
From my perspective, under no circumstances should we undervalue the power of doing small things. Instead, we should regard small things as the source of experience, skills and the prerequisite of success. “Great achievement only belongs to those who can do small things perfectly。” Aristotle once said。
作文的第一段，要进行简单描绘图画内容，这是必须的，也是题目中强制要求的(a brief description of the picture)。描述的时候，只要把父子两的对话移植到第一段，然后把父亲手指垃圾桶的动作描绘一下就可以了，非常简单。
作文的第二段，进行主旨提炼并且论述。这幅图画很容易看出主题，那就是做大事之前，要先做小事(一屋不扫，何以扫天下)，而且题目中其实早就已经透露了主题了 (express your views on the importance of doing small things before undertakingsomething big。)因此，第二段通篇论述小事做起的重要性就可以了。属于我在课堂上讲过的作文三大分类之“积极主题，论述意义”
What the author illustrates in the picture reflects a hot topic which causedour concern: the importance of doing small thingsbefore undertaking something big. It is true that we are likely to overcomesome obstacles if we are proceeding forward to achieve success. However,this is the quality that many people lack in。
Asthe father in the picture says, those who can empty the dustbin in the roomfirst can tackle the big problems afterwards. Likewise, if one cannot deal withthe things in hand, he or she must fail in the following knotty problems. Wecan easily notice the phenomenon that the people who are in possession of thisquality finally become successful figures, such as Ma Yun, first worked as anordinary employee in a small company, and then created his own business empireafter years of sufferings。
Tosum up, it is imperative that we all should possess the quality of doing smallthings, and put more emphasis on the details, only through this can weundertake the responsibilities of tackling big problems。
We can see from the cartoon that there is a father talking with hisson. Having heard his son’s words that “Dad, I am a bit worried about disposing of nuclear waste。” The father repliesthat “ If you can empty the dustbin here, you can do anything” and points the garbage can beside him。
Funny and common as the conversation sounds, it reflects that the fatherintends to advise his son to do small things before undertaking big.Definitely, doing small things is the first step of success and will lay rootfor doing something big. By doing something small, we are able to accumulateexperience, master skills and train ourselves to be more patient. In other words,we can be well prepared for further challenges in the course of fulfillingsmall things. By contrast, those who desire to do something big at once willconstantly be haunted by disappointment, frustrations or even failures, As whenopportunities-“something big” appears, they can hardly seize them because ofthe lack of experience and confidence stems from doing small things. Taking thepicture presented above as a case in point, how can the little boy succeed indisposing of nuclear weapons if he even doesn’t know how to empty the dustbin?
From my perspective, under no circumstances should we undervalue thepower of doing small things. Instead, we should regard small things as thesource of experience, skills and the prerequisite of success. “Greatachievement only belongs to those who can do small things perfectly。” Aristotleused to say。
The importanceof reading literature
The importance of reading literature
Fromthe cartoon given above, we can observe that there is a teacher and a studentstanding in the classroom. When receiving a literature book given by herteacher, the little girl seems to be quite nervous and unwilling. Havingobserved her student’s response, the teacher tells her that “Just think of itas if you are reading a long text-message。”
The cartoon aims at informing us of the phenomenonthat quite a few students or youngsters are reluctant to read literaturenowadays. With the Internet and electronic communication tools such asmicroblogs, mobile phones and QQ becoming increasingly widespread, quite a fewpeople are more used to reading short context. They hold that, compared withlong contents such as literature, these short ones are more convenient and timesaving. What’s more, many students refuse to read literature in that theybelieve that literature is boring and of little use in modern society。
However, no one can disclaim theimportance of reading literature. It enables people to enrich their knowledgeand expand their horizons. Moreover, reading literature also inspires people tothink critically and independently. Last but not least, by spending time inreading literature, we can also develop and perfect human personality such asbeing patient and optimistic. Hence, why not just get out of the reality temporarilyand spend some time on literature ?
第一段：图画描述，这个是本能，是直觉，同时，也是题目中明确要求的(abrief description of the picture)，所以你不描绘图画，或者是图画信息不全，扣分。描述的时候，你要把学生提问的那句话写出来，把老师教课的动作写出来，以及老师听到学生挑衅性的提问之后的表情，也要写出来。
第三段：结论和表态，分析完了原因之后，你要回到主题，那就是我们不能忽视这些基本技能，要唤起大家对“基本技能的重要性”的认识。所以，这一段，你可以正面阐述为什么basic skills 如此的重要，就可以了。
As is vividly depicted in the cartoongiven above, we can observe that there are many students sitting in a classroom.When listening to the teacher, one of the students just interrupts the teacherand says “ No offense, but by the time we’re in the job market, won’t thatstuff be outdated?” Having heard this question, the teacher stops demonstratingthe Multiplication Table and seems to be quite shocked and embarrassed。
The cartoon informs us of the phenomenonthat quite a few students undervalue the importance of learning basic skillsthese days. Confronted with fiercer competition from society and employmentmarket, students are more focused on practical skills which can be applied indaily work immediately. Moreover, they also fears that the basic knowledge andskills they learn today will be outdated by the time they are in the jobmarket。
However, no one can disclaim theimportance of learning basic skills. It enables us to lay a strong foundationfor further learning and exploration. In other words, those who have masteredbasic skills well are more likely to acquire other skills and knowledge withease. Basic skills are equivalent to the first step of success, as an ancientChinese saying goes, “ A road of thousand miles towards the success begins withthe first step。”